Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Schizophrenia as Disconnection Disorder

Pritesh G. Shah, Bharti W. Gawali


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) today acts as the basis for neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience. Advances in
scanner technology, image acquisition, experimental design, and analysis methods collectively push fMRI much ahead. The fMRI allows seeing
activity in the brain in relation to the performance of particular behaviours as well as it measures change in blood flow related to neural activity
in the brain. It produces a steady increase in the amount of research on cognitive behaviour. One of the major clinical applications of fMRI is in
the diagnosis of Schizophrenia. Because of its close ties to neuroscience, fMRI has been widely used since its invention to investigate the neural
basis of mental illness. Most of the major illnesses, e.g. schizophrenia and major depression, appear to represent disordered neural systems
widely distributed in the brain. FMRI provides a means to assess the neurobiological theory that schizophrenia is caused by abnormal frontal–
temporal lobe connections. In this paper we provide a review on functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the analysis of fMRI data, from the
initial acquisition of the raw data to its use in locating brain activity, Methods, Tools Techniques used, their advantages, Disadvantages making
inference about brain connectivity and predictions about psychological or disease states.

Keywords: MRI, FMRI, BOLD, SPM, Schizophrenia.

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